Sunday, December 19, 2010

Slavski Obicaji / The Christian customs and traditions of the Serbian celebration of "Slava" - the holy day of their Patron Saints / Film footage with music and narration in the Serbian language

Aleksandra's Note:  The Krsna Slava is a Christian holiday specific only to Serbs. It is the day of the family's Patron Saint. Each family has its own special day, and many Serbs throughout the world share the same patron Saint. Today, December 19th, is the Slava of Saint Nikola, a holiday shared and celebrated by Serbs the world over. It falls just before Christmas. The following presentation by Nenad Zivanovic is a wonderful tribute to the meaning of "Slava" and though it is narrated in the Serbian language, those who do not understand the words can still enjoy and appreciate the meaning behind the images and the beautiful music.

Sincerely,

Aleksandra Rebic


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Slavski Obicaji


Posted on YouTube by:


"velicki"




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pXGNQoElITI&feature=related




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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com



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Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Obeležena 96. godišnjica Kolubarske bitke

Beta - Tanjug
Objavljeno: 15.12.2010.
Politika Online



Zivojin Misic

LAZAREVAC – U Lazarevcu je održana centralna manifestacija povodom 96. godišnjice Kolubarske bitke vođene u Prvom svetskom ratu.

Odate su državne i vojne počasti kod Spomen-crkve Svetog Dimitrija u tom gradu, u čijoj kripti počivaju posmrtni ostaci stradalih srpskih i austro-ugarskih vojnika.

U kripti Spomen-crkve i kraj Spomenika srpskom ratniku vence su položili predstavnici Ministarstva rada i socijalne politike, Ministarstva odbrane i Generalštaba Vojske Srbije, opštine Lazarevac, ambasada Austrije, Mađarske, Slovačke i Češke, kao i nevladinih organizacija koje neguju tradiciju oslobodilačkih ratova Srbije.

Protokol organizatora svečanosti - Odbora Vlade Srbije za negovanje tradicija oslobodilačkih ratova Srbije nije dozvolio da se prisutnima obrati zamenik predsednika lazarevačke opštine Aleksandar Dražić zbog toga što nije želeo da skine stranačka obeležja.

Dražić je član Srpske radikalne stranke, a na reveru nosio je bedž podrške haškom optuženiku Vojislavu Šešelju, predsedniku radikala.

Kolubarska ili Suvoborska bitka, vođena od 16. novembra do 15. decembra 1914, jedna je od najvećih i najznačajnijih bitki između vojske Kraljevine Srbije i Austro-ugarske u Prvom svetskom ratu.

Bitka je vođena na frontu od 200 kilometara, a okončana je uspešnom protivofanzivom srpskih snaga pod komandom generala Živojina Mišića (1855-1921), protiv brojnije i nemerljivo bolje opremljene austrougarske vojske.

Mišić je docnije unapređen u čin vojvode, a njegova strategija u toj bici izučava se na vojnim akademijama širom sveta.

U Kolubarskoj bici poginulo je 22.000 vojnika Kraljevine Srbije i 28.296 vojnika balkanske vojske Austrougarske monarhije, među kojima 1.080 oficira.

Tradicionalna manifestacija „Dani Kolubarske bitke”, započeta 5. decembra polaganjem venaca na spomenik Dimitriju Tucoviću, na Vračem brdu kod Ćelija, završava se sutra uveče tribinom „Velike sile i Srbija u Prvom svetskom ratu”.

Kao učesnici te tribine u lazarevačkoj biblioteci „Dimitrije Tucović” najavljeni su Mira Radojević, Miloš Ković i Ljubodrag Dimić.

______________

U Aranđelovcu položeni venci

Polaganjem venaca kraj Spomen-kosturnice u Aranđelovcu, u kojoj su sahranjena 3.892 srpska i austrougarska vojnika i pomenom koji su služili sveštenici Orašačkog namesništva, obeležena je 96. godišnjica srpske pobede u slavnoj Kolubarskoj bici.

Vence su položili predstavnici aranđelovačkog SUBNOR-a i opštine, a o tom događaju koji je odredio sudbinu Prvog svetskog rata govorio je predsednik boračke organizacije u Aranđelovcu Radomir Milošević.

U programu su učestvovala kulturno-umetnička društva, a predstavljen je i najnoviji broj časopisa „Zavet”, u kome su zabeležene aktivnosti boračke organizacije u Aranđelovcu.



http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Drustvo/Danas-se-obelezava-96-godisnjica-Kolubarske-bitke.lt.html


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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


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Thursday, December 2, 2010

Jubilant Austrians take Belgrade, Serbia! This day in history...December 2. // Jubilation that would last for just a day...

Jubilant Austrians take Belgrade, Serbia
December 2, 1914


Aleksandra's Note: On this day in history, December 2, 1914, the Austrians achieved what they thought was a decisive victory over their nemesis, the Serbians, during their third offensive of 1914. Serbia's great commander Zivojin Misic, who had come out of retirement with the onset of the First World War, was given the task of commanding  the Serbian First Army, replacing another great Serbian commander, General Petar Bojovic, who was ill and had been wounded in previous battles. General Misic made the controversial, highly risky but brilliantly strategic decision to withdraw his forces deeper south, away from the northern front, which meant deliberately evacuating, essentially "abandoning", Belgrade. He moved his forces south to the right bank of the Kolubara River, a river in Serbia whose name would become synonymous with wartime miracles, in order to revitalize them and prepare them for a successul counteroffensive against Oskar Potiorek's Austrian army. This left Belgrade "undefended" and the Austrians were able to virtually "walk in" to capture their most prestigious objective! Belgrade was theirs! Serbia's back was broken! Of that, the Austrians were certain, and now it was just a matter of time before the Serbian state was finished once and for all!

Their jubilation would last for exactly one day. This day, December 2, 1914.

As I have said before, one of the biggest mistakes that anyone who sets out to crush Serbia can make is to underestimate the Serbs.


The drawing above reflects Austrian satisfaction at getting the Belgrade prize. On www.gutenberg.org is found the following description of this image reflecting the events of December 2nd, 1914 in Belgrade, Serbia:

"This drawing by a German artist shows General Liborius von Frank (riding in front of the standard-bearer) entering Belgrade at the head of the Fifth Austrian Army on December 2. As the troops passed the Konak, the building in the background with a cupola, they sang the Austrian national anthem. General Frank sent the following message to the Emperor Francis Joseph: 'On the occasion of the sixty-sixth anniversary of your Majesty's accession permit me to lay at your feet the information that Belgrade was to-day occupied by the troops of the Fifth Army.'"


http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18334/18334-h/18334-h.htm


Serbia's Zivojin Misic
Commander of the Serbian First Army
World War One


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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


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Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Dedicating the 2010/2011 Holiday Season to remembering special instances of extraordinary Serbian heroism and fortitude



Serbian Cross
Photo by Cassily



WE ARE THE SERBS.

They may test us and they will.

They may battle us and they will.

They may try to diminish us and they will,

But only for a time.

They may hurt us and they will.

They may betray us and they will.

They may try to break us,

But they will never.


Aleksandra Rebic



Serbian warrior with the flag of the Kingdom of Serbia
The Military Museum of Serbian history


Dear visitors to "Heroes of Serbia":

It strikes me as being the perfect time to revisit and remember episodes in Serbian history that are particularly remarkable for what they tell us about the human capacity for bravery, endurance, fortitude, and rising above one's circumstances and persevering.

Serbs are extraordinary people. It is my hope that the postings that follow will be testimony to that fact, and that their story will serve as an inspiration to anyone who still believes in the strength of the spirit to prevail over circumstance.


Sincerely,

Aleksandra Rebic
December 1, 2010



Serbian double-headed eagle
"Breaking the shackles of chains"
Photo of painting courtesy of






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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


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Friday, November 5, 2010

Where were the French and English? / The Retreat of a Nation

St. Clair Stobart

Photo of "The Flaming Sword" courtesy
of Milana "Mim" Bizic



...THE situation was growing more and more serious.

We had retreated forty miles in the last two days,

evidently not without reason, as the Germans had

entered Jagodina, at noon, on the day we had passed

through at 2.30 a.m. and, as there were other columns

behind us, that did not leave a large margin of safety.

I was always aware that delay caused by mistake in

taking the wrong road, or by dalliance with accidents,

would be fatal; but neither in our column, nor in

any column that I saw during three months of

retreat, was there ever anything but calmness and

apparent unconcern. Had there at any time been

panic, the narrow defiles would have been catacombed

with dead, in addition to the thousands who perished

from other causes.



But remarkable indeed was the dignity and order-

liness with which, from start to finish, the retreat of

the Serbian Army was conducted. And the silence!

Hour after hour, day and night after day and night,

week after week, thousands upon thousands of

soldiers, trudging wearily beside their slow-paced

oxen, or with their regiments of infantry, or driving

their gun-carriages, or, as cavalry, riding their horses

in silence. No laughter, no singing, no talking;

the silence of a funeral procession, which indeed it

was; a silence only broken by the cries of the drivers

to their oxen: "Svetko! Belia! Napred! Desno!

Levo! " ("Svetko! Belia! Forward! To the right!

To the left!") and the ceaseless rumbling of wagon

wheels, which sounded like the breaking of an angry

sea on a distant pebble beach. I have, since my

return, re-read accounts of the retreat of Napoleon's

army from Moscow, and though we were spared

some of the horrors they endured, there were two

features in our Serbian retreat, which were happily

absent in the other. For the retreat in which we

took part was the retreat, not only of the Serbian

Army, but of the Serbian nation. This meant that

thousands of women, children, and old men, driven

from their homes by the advancing enemy, were, in

ever-increasing numbers, as we progressed southwards,

adding to the difficulties of the safe retreat of the

Army, by mixing with the columns of artillery,

cavalry, infantry, engineers, field hospitals, and

swelling the procession.



Wagons filled with household treasures, beds,

blankets, chairs, frying-pans, even geese, slung head

downwards at the back of the cart, or balancing

themselves with curious dignity, upon the uneven

surfaces of indiscriminate luggage; a look of pained

astonishment on their faces, at their rude removal

from their own comfortable pastures.



Or, more frequent and more painful still, wagons

filled with little children; the oxen, weary and

hungry, led by women, also weary, hungry, and foot-

sore. I saw one woman, dragging by the rope, two

tired oxen drawing a wagon, in which were eight

small children. I saw a tiny boy leading two tiny

calves, which were drawing a tiny cart containing a

tiny baby, who was strapped to the cart. I saw a

woman, evidently not wealthy enough to possess a

cart and oxen of her own, carrying her two babies,

one on her back, and one in front ; and, in one of the

crushes which frequently occurred, the baby on her

back, was knocked off by the horns of a passing ox.



We wondered, at Shabatz, why we were on that

side of the river, with no bridge near us, when all

the other columns were travelling towards Krushevatz

on the other side. We received no orders all that day,

and I wondered more and more, for there was always

the possibility that the order might have gone astray.

But at 3 a.m. on Saturday, November 6th, the order

came to start at once for Kupgi, beyond Krushevatz,

via the pontoon bridge, which we had left on our

way here.



It was still dark when we reached the bridge. A

lengthy convoy of artillery was crossing, and behind

them again were endless other convoys. We halted,

and it seemed likely that hours would pass before

we should get a chance of butting in. But, to my joy,

I found that the artillery column was under the com-

mand of my Varvarin Major. He saw us, and at once

came up and said that he would arrange for us to

cross the bridge immediately after his guns. We

had not more than an hour to wait. A short, steep

bank of mud, and we were up on the approach road

to the bridge. I was told to dismount, and, following

close upon the guns, and followed by our own Red

Cross wagons, I led my horse across the pontoon.

Dawn was breaking, and I was glad, for my eyes

would surely never again see such a sight. Purple

mountains, wrapped in white mists, and crowned

with soft pink clouds; the broad grey river, rushing

wildly to its fate; and a bridge of boats. Upon the

bridge, dimly visible in the growing light, soldiers,

leading wagons which were carrying cannons and

heavy guns motives of murder and destruction

dominant closely followed by women leading Red

Cross wagons the cross of Christianity waving in the

breeze.



On the other side of the bridge, refugees, streaming

along the road from Stalatz to Krushevatz, converged

with the stream of columns and refugees who crossed

the bridge, and made confusion even more confounded

than before. But I found my friend, the Major,

waiting for me on the other side. He had seen his

column safely across, and now he would, he said,

ride with us to Krushevatz, to show us the road out

of the town. He did this, and then rode off to place

his battery for a rearguard action.



The town was a solid mass of convoys and fugitives,

and it was anxious work steering the column safely

through, intact. The road leading through the town

was broader than usual, and the wagons of refugees

and of columns were jammed together three abreast

in hopeless tangle. "Many oxen were come about

us; lean bulls of Basan closed us in on every side."



Later, the Headquarters Staff overtook us, and I rode

for a while beside our Divisional Commander. He told

me quietly, as though he were talking of the death of

a distant relative, that Nish had been taken by the

Bulgars; those flags of welcome which we had seen, were

now welcoming our enemies. Where, we asked each

other, were the French and the English ? But not a word

of bitterness passed his lips; "there was doubtless some

good reason," was his only comment. And I could only

say what I always said, "Never mind, we shall get it

all back one day," but I sometimes almost wished,

for the first time in my life, that I was not English.



Mabel Annie Stobart
("St. Clair Stobart")
"The Flaming Sword in Serbia and Elsewhere"
1916


________________________________________________
 


From http://www.herstoria.com/

Mrs (Mabel Anne St Clair) Stobart (1862-1954)



Although with some anti-war sympathies, at the outset of WW1 Mrs Stobart founded the Women’s National Service League to facilitate women’s war service both at home and abroad. She set up all-women staffed hospitals in Belgium, Antwerp and Northern France and, in 1915, created an innovative tented hospital in Serbia, and a series of emergency dispensaries to which thousands of Serbian civilians turned to for help. In 1915 the Serbian Army Medical Services sent her to the front in command of a mobile hospital unit. Stobart led her group on horseback for over eighty days through harsh terrain, arriving in Scutari (Albania) without any loss of personnel.


http://www.herstoria.com/discover/WW1Hospital.html



*****
 
If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


*****

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Serbian Commemorative Cross, 1913 [Balkan Wars]




FROM PICARDY ANTIQUES, LTD.:

"On replaced correct ribbon. The Cross was instituted on 25 November (7 December) 1913 to be awarded to military and civilians for meritorious service during the First and Second Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. An alliance of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia threw the Ottoman Turks out of almost all their remaining European territories in 1912 and the First Balkan War ended with the Treaty of London on 30 May 1913. However, the victors fell out over the division of the spoils, with Serbia and Greece forming an alliance against Bulgaria and the Second Balkan War broke out at the end of June. After initial setbacks, Bulgarian military successes stabilised the front in Macedonia. The situation was transformed by the invasion of Bulgaria by Romania on 10 July, leaving the former in a hopeless position. An armistice was agreed on 31 July with Bulgaria losing most of her gains from the First War and Serbia becoming the dominant Balkan power. The Cross was made by Arthus Bertrand of Paris and Huguenin Frères of Le Locle, Switzerland."



Note: This medal is currently available for purchase at the link below:

http://www.picardyantiquesltd.com/shop/article_S1504/Commemorative-Cross%2C-1913.html?shop_param=cid%3D60%26aid%3DS1504%26



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If you would like to contact me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


*****

Serbian Commemorative Medal for the Albanian Retreat, 1915





FROM PICARDY ANTIQUES LTD.:


"On replaced correct trifold ribbon. The medal was created on 5 April 1920 and awarded to all military who took part in the terrible retreat in the winter of 1915 through the mountains of Albania to Corfu. Faced with annihilation by Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian armies, the Serbian army, led by King Peter and Crown Prince Alexander, made an heroic retreat and was later to play a notable part in the breakout from Salonika that forced Bulgaria out of World War I. Its survival in 1915 and subsequent recovery was an important factor leading to the creation of Yugoslavia in 1918. The medal was made by Arthus Bertrand of Paris and is increasingly hard to find. A good example."





Note: This medal is available for purchase at the link below:

http://www.picardyantiquesltd.com/shop/article_S1699/Commemorative-Medal-for-the-Albanian-Retreat%2C-1915.html?shop_param=cid%3D60%26aid%3DS1699%26



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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com

*****

Serbian Commemorative Cross for the War of Liberation and Union, 1914-1918






FROM PICARDY ANTIQUES, LTD.


"Bronze cross pattée alisée with ball finials and with crossed swords between the arms, on laterally pierced ball suspension; the face with the head of King Petar I facing right circumscribed ‘ПЕТАР I КРАЉ СРБИЈЕ’ (Petar I King of Serbia) within a circular laurel wreath, the dates ‘1914’ and ‘1918’ on the upper and lower arms of the cross; the reverse with the crowned Serbian arms and the dates ‘1915’, ‘1916’ and ‘1917’ on the lower, left and right arms respectively; on original somewhat worn trifold ribbon. The Cross was instituted on 1 December 1920 to be awarded to Serbian and Montenegrin military who had participated in World War I and to Allied military who had contributed to the liberation of Serbia. The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 led to the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Serbian forces resisted Austrian attacks until the end of November when, short of munitions, the Serbs withdrew and the Austrians entered Belgrade on 2 December. On 3 December, the entire Serb army launched a ferocious counter-attack and retook Belgrade on 15 December. The situation was transformed by the entry of Bulgaria into the war in October 1915 and the Serb army was forced to make its terrible winter retreat through the mountains of Albania. These troops were later transferred to Salonika and on 15 September 1918 began an attack that retook Serbia and, by 10 November, had crossed the Danube. During the war Serbia suffered more than one and a quarter million casualties from a total population of four and a half million, representing more than half its adult male population. The Cross was made by Arthus Bertrand of Paris and by Huguenin Frères of Le Locle, Switzerland."



Note: This medal is currently available for purchase at the following link:

http://www.picardyantiquesltd.com/shop/article_S1178/Commemorative-Cross-for-the-War-of-Liberation-and-Union,-1914-1918.html?shop_param=cid%3D60%26aid%3DS1178%26




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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


*****

Monday, October 25, 2010

King Peter I of Serbia - The "Liberator" (Oslobodilac) - One of the most beloved Royals of all time


Aleksandra's Note: As royalty goes, King Peter I of Serbia is one of my favorites. Though he reigned over a century ago, he remains to this day one of the most beloved and popular monarchs that ever ruled over a people. Born on June 29, 1844, he lived to be 77 years old and died on August 16, 1921, while King (and "founding father") of the "first Yugoslavia" (known at that time as the "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes"). Prior to that he was King of Serbia from June 15, 1903 to December 1, 1918 and his very real presence on the WWI battlefields and landscapes, though he was not in good health, remains the stuff of legend. He was succeeded by his son Alexander I Karageorgevich, who would become King Alexander of Yugoslavia.

The legacy of the Karageorgevich dynasty of Serbia continues to be felt to this day, and many yearn for the return of the rule of the Monarchy in Serbia.

Below are some images I hope you enjoy and will make you curious about this "bigger than life" ruler, who was as modest as he was great.

To learn more, please visit


Sincerely,

Aleksandra Rebic


*****


Monument to King Peter I Karageorgevich in Zrenjanin, Serbia
Photo by "Alexzr88" in 2006

King Peter I of Serbia on the WWI battlefield

Portait of His Majesty King Peter I of Serbia

A rare photo of Duke Petar Karageorgevich's family
before he became King.
In the center is his wife Duchess Zorka of Montenegro.



King Peter I immortalized on the Serbian 5 Dinara coin in 1904.
On the other side of the coin is the classic Serbian emblem.



*****

If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


*****

Sunday, October 10, 2010

95th Anniversary of the Heroic Defence of Belgrade in WWI marked in Serbia October 2010 / Attended by U.S. Ambassador to Serbia Mary Burce Warlick

A memorial service to the defenders of Belgrade in the First World War

glassrbije.org

Radio Srbija

07 October 2010


Serbian Patriarch Irinej


Observing the 95th anniversary of the defence of Belgrade in the First World War, Serbian Patriarch Irinej blessed the renewed military memorial at the Belgrade New Cemetery and held a service for soldiers that died defending the Serbian capital in 1915. A memorial tomb at the New Cemetery contains the mortal remains of more than 2,600 soldiers, who defended Belgrade aware of the fact that their names had been erased from the list of the living. Serbian Defence Minister Dragan Sutanovac said that Serbia had not fought for its own freedom only at the time, but also for the freedom of the entire democratic world and that it was among the allies that liberated Europe. He emphasized that in the 21st century Serbia wants to be a country of peace and friendship, that it has not enemies and wants to be a stability factor. The state ceremony was attended by numerous foreign military envoys and representatives of the diplomatic corps. The ceremony ended with an art programme dedicated to major Dragutin Gavrilovic, the heroic leader of the defence of Belgrade in 1915.



http://glassrbije.org/E/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12367&Itemid=26


___________________________________________________________


FROM THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH:  WWW.SPC.RS













U.S. Ambassador to Serbia Mary Burce Warlick
Standing 4th from left as you view the photo

Major Dragutin Gavrilovic


Reputation of Belgrade, our capital, must be bright!

7. October 2010

95th ANNIVERSARY OF THE DEFENCE OF BELGRADE

His Holiness Irinej, Serbian Patriarch served today, in the Memorial ossuary to the defenders of Belgrade in the First World War at the New cemetary, the commemoration for suffered heroes in the defence of the Serbian capital in 1915. After the prayerful remembrance of the ancestors fallen for freedom, the remains of the famous warriors were stored in the restored memorial ossuary with the honorary salvo.

Following the ceremony of laying the wreaths done by representativs of the Government of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Army, the City of Belgrade and organizations which care that deeds of our ancestors should not be forgotten, Mr. Dragan Sutanova, minister of Defence in the Government of the Republic of Serbia, addressed the present. Besides the state officials, also the representatives of the diplomatic corps attended the short cultural program.

In October 1915, attacking with its main forces over the Sava and the Danube, the armies of the Central Axis had a goal to encircle and destroy the Serbina army. Belgrade was attacked by parts of the German and Austro-Hungarian army, with a strong support of the artillery from the land and the rivers. The troops of the Belgrade Defence provided the resistance, especially on the positions which were defended by major Dragutin Gavrilovic.

The memorial ossuary is located in the Belgrade New cemetary, a and it was built in 1931. by the project of the Russian architect Roman Verhovskoy. In the Memorial ossuary there are the remains of several thousand defenders of Belgrade from 1915.


http://www.spc.rs/eng/reputation_belgrade_our_capital_must_be_bright


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Образ Београда, наше престонице, мора да буде светао!

7. October 2010

95. ГОДИШЊИЦА ОДБРАНЕ БЕОГРАДА

Његова Светост Патријарх српски Г. Иринеј служио је данас, код Спомен-костурнице браниоцима Београда у Првом светском рату на Новом гробљу, помен постардалим јунацима у одбрани српске престонице 1915. године. Након молитвеног сећања на претке пале за слободу, у обновљену спомен-костурницу уз почасни плотун похрањени су посмртни остаци славних ратника.

После церемоније полагања венаца од стране представника Владе Републике Србије, Војске Србије, Града Београда и организација која брину да се дела наших предака не забораве, присутнима се обратио господин Драган Шутановац, министар одбране у Влади Републике Србије. Краћем уметничком програму присуствовали су, поред државних званичника, и представници дипломатског кора.

Октобра 1915. године, нападајући главним снагама преко Саве и Дунава, ка долини Велике Мораве, а помоћним преко Дрине и из Бугарске, армије Централних сила имале су задатак да окруже и униште Српску војску. Београд су нападали делови немачке и аустроугарске армије, уз снажну подршку артиљерије са копна и река. Трупе одбране Београда пружале су жесток отпор, посебно на положајима које су браниле јединице мајора Драгутина Гавриловића.

Остале су нам за сва времена последње речи мајора Гавриловића упућене својим војницима:

Војници, тачно у 15 часова непријатеља треба разбити вашим силним јуришем, разнети вашим бомбама и бајонетима. Образ Београда, наше престонице, мора да буде светао. Војници! Јунаци! Врховна команда избрисала је наш пук из бројног стања. Наш пук је жртвован за част Београда и Отаџбине. Ви немате дакле, да се бринете за животе ваше, они више не постоје. Зато напред, у славу! За краља и Отаџбину! Живео Краљ, живео Београд!

Спомен-костурница налази се на београдском Новом гробљу, а подигнута је 1931. године по пројекту руског архитекте Романа Верховскоја. На врху постамента налази се фигурална представа српског војника, рад Живојина Лазића, док су уз њен постамент приказани аустроугарски и немачки двоглави орлови, као симбол победе Српске војске у Првом светском рату. У Спомен-костурници се налазе посмртни остаци неколико хиљада храбрих бранилаца Београда из 1915. године.


http://www.spc.rs/eng/obraz_beograda_nase_prestonice_mora_da_bude_svetao






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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


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Monday, August 9, 2010

Funeral of King Peter I Karageorgevich of Serbia (later Yugoslavia) / Video Newsreel Film


THE TEXT BELOW IS FROM "BRITISH PATHE"

Funeral of King Peter I Karageorgevich of Serbia (later Yugoslavia).

Issued 1921

"People standing by tall fence, including woman in mourning wearing long black veil and men in military uniforms. CU elderly man with long white beard wearing many military decorations, he is surrounded by other men, both military and civilians (this man could possibly be Nikolai Pasic, the Serbian Prime Minister, who had supported the house of Karageorgevich in its accession to the throne).


"Funeral procession through the streets of Belgrade - magnificent parade of elaborately decorated trucks covered with flowers, crosses and streamers etc. Men in various uniforms, walking in the procession, carrying wreaths. Soldiers in procession. 2 guards walk on either side of a white horse, saddled but with no rider.


"More military personnel in parade, young women in uniform - schoolgirls? Groups of various religious officials, including Eastern Orthodox leaders. Flag-covered coffin on gun carriage. Pallbearers carry coffin up steps.


American cataloguer's note: actually after World War One, King Peter was called King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the Kingdom of Serbia having joined with territory taken from Austria-Hungary."

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To play, click on the photo image below or on the link.


(FUNERAL OF PETER [I] OF SERBIA)




http://www.britishpathe.com/record.php?id=80563


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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


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Friday, August 6, 2010

The Order of the Star of Karageorge

Obverse of the GC Badge


GC Star (War Merit Division)


King Peter I Karageorgevich of Serbia


FROM THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF THE SERBIAN ROYAL FAMILY

King Petar I instituted the Order on 1 January 1904, to commemorate his own accession to the Serbian Throne and the centenary of the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Turks, lead by the Founder of the Dynasty, Djordje Petrovic, called Black George (or Kara-George) owing to his dark complexion. The National Assembly voted Kara-George the Hereditary Supreme Leader of the Serbs, and the Sultan eventually recognized him as vassal Prince status.

The new Order was aimed to replace two previous awards of the House of Obrenovic that had distinctly Family Order characteristics: The Order of the Cross of Takovo and the Royal Order of Milosh the Great. Both, in fact, commemorated the Obrenovic Dynasty Founder, Prince Milos, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising (1815). The Order of the Star of Karageorge was defined as senior state award, with some elements of the House Order (since Princes of the Blood were by birth GCs, invested at baptism). It was organized into four classes, and was awarded to Serbian citizens for exceptional merit rendered to the King, State and Nation, for civilian or military service, and in 1906 foreign nationals were declared also eligible.

During the Balkan Wars, a War Merit Division (with crossed swords through center of the cross) was introduced, to reward conspicuous gallantry of the commissioned officers in the field, as well as (in higher classes) senior officers successful troop command. The insignia of this Division were worn suspended from the plain red watered silk ribbon. In 1915 a sub-Division was introduced, aimed to reward acts of conspicuous bravery of the NCOs and soldiers in the field, with two Classes (Gold and Silver Cross).

The Order is conferred by the Crown, and should not be confused with the homonymous three classes Order awarded by Republika Srpska. The War Merit GCs were extremely rare (only 18 were awarded, among them the American General Pershing, the British Field Marshals Haig and the French Marshals Joffre, Sarrail, Petain, Franchet d'Esperey and Guillaumat, the Italian General Cadorna, the Romanian King Ferdinand I, etc., and among Serbs- King Aleksandar I and Field Marshals Misic and Stepanovic; in the Second World War the only GC awarded was to the town of Kragujevac, in 1942). Recent conferment of the peacetime Division was that of 3rd Class to British Author Michael Lees.

The Order's insignia were originally manufactured by G.A.Scheid of Vienna (Austria), and later by Arthus Bertrand of Paris (France) and Huguenin Freres of Le Locle (Switzerland), as well as by the national companies (as Sorlini, of Varazdin).


http://www.royalfamily.org/history/orders3.htm


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If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com

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Wednesday, July 28, 2010

War with the Serbians is never a good idea.


Draft of the Austrian declaration
of war against Serbia July 1914


A young Adolf Hitler attends a rally in
Munich Odeonsplatz celebrating
Austria's declaration of war against Serbia July 1914 


Aleksandra's Note:  It was in these days of summer 96 years ago, in the lovely, peaceful summer of 1914, that things just got really out of hand. The more one learns of how the first World War in history, that war that was to "end all wars", really began, the more amazed and horrified one becomes at how an ostensibly "local" conflict, that was to take no more than a few months to resolve and finish, could manifest into an international monster that quite literally changed the world in  four short years.

That is precisely why everyone needs to pay attention to, and be concerned about, those "local" matters, "way over there".

Just in considering the few bits of information here, one can confidently draw a few conclusions in hindsight:

1. Never underestimate how big something can become.

2. Never become overconfident, even if you are an Empire, because those "little peoples in their little states" could end up beating you and your Empire, and your Empire could become "no more".

3. There is no way that one can justifiably blame "Greater Serbian Nationalism" as being the true cause of World War I.

Even after all these years, almost a century later, there are STILL people who believe that World War I was caused by an 18 year old Bosnian Serb "nationalist" named Gavrilo Princip. That's perhaps the most amazing thing of it all.

It might behoove the great powers of today, in the 21st century, to consider that it's not necessarily wise to mess with Serbia and the Serbians.

Sincerely,

Aleksandra Rebic



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"At 11:10 A.M. on July 28, 1914, Count Leopold von Berchtold, the Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs, sent the following telegram from Vienna to M. N. Pashitch, Serbian Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs. This declaration of war was received at Nish at 12:30 P.M."

[Telegraphic]

Vienna, July 28, 1914


The Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms. Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in a state of war with Serbia.


COUNT BERCHTOLD
 
Austr0-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs






From: Collected Documents Relating to the Outbreak of the European War (London, 1915), p. 392. This is Document No. 45 quoted from the Serbian Blue Book.




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According to historian John Clinton Adams:

 
"The telegram came indirectly. It went from Vienna to Bucharest and from there down to Nish, which in the last three days had become the new capital of Serbia. Copied in pencil, the impersonal French words looked unimpressive..."

__________________________________


From the Manchester Guardian July 29, 1914

"Austria has declared war upon Serbia. An unconfirmed report says Austro-Hungarian troops have invaded Serbia by crossing the River Save at Mitrovitz. Two Serbian steamers have been seized on the Danube.

"In Vienna it is believed that Montenegro, which stands with her Serb sister state, is mobilising, and that a joint force is gathering near the Bosnian frontier in readiness to deliver a counter-stroke towards Sarajevo.

"Our St. Petersburg correspondent, telegraphing last night, says if Austria occupies Belgrade, Russia will reply at once by mobilising all her army. Her partial mobilisation is in full swing.

"In Berlin, it is believed that if Russia calls her troops to the colours, Germany will at once follow her example. The fleet has returned to home waters."


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THE FOLLOWING IS FROM WWW.FIRSTWORLDWAR.COM


"The 'Great War', which began on 28 July 1914 with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war with Serbia, was the first truly global war. It began in Europe but quickly spread throughout the world. Many countries became embroiled within the war's first month; others joined in the ensuing four years, with Honduras announcing hostilities with Germany as late as 19 July 1918 (with the record going to Romania, who entered the war - albeit for the second time - one day before it finished, on 10 November 1918).

"Detailed below is a list of the nations [in alphabetical order] who formally declared hostilities during World War One, along with their date of entrance. Nations of the British Empire, e.g. Australia, Canada and New Zealand, automatically entered the war with Britain's decision to enter the fray on 4 August 1914.

"Note that on numerous occasions hostilities were assumed without a formal declaration, e.g. Russia with Germany and Austria-Hungary in August 1914."



Australia

Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

Austria-Hungary

Declared war with Serbia on 28 July 1914

Declared war with Russia on 6 August 1914

Declared war with Belgium on 28 August 1914

Declared war with Portugal on 15 March 1916

Belgium

Invaded by Germany on 3 August 1914

Bolivia

Severed relations with Germany on 13 April 1917

Brazil

Severed relations with Germany on 11 April 1917

Declared war with Germany on 26 October 1917

Bulgaria

Declared war with Serbia on 14 October 1915

Declared war with Romania on 1 September 1916

Canada

Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

China

Severed relations with Germany on 14 March 1917

Declared war with Germany on 14 August 1917

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 14 August 1917

Costa Rica

Severed relations with Germany on 21 September 1917

Declared war with Germany on 23 May 1918

Cuba

Declared war with Germany on 7 April 1917

Ecuador

Severed relations with Germany on 8 December 1917

France

Invaded by Germany on 2 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 12 August 1914

Declared war with Turkey on 5 November 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 16 October 1915

Germany

Declared war with Russia on 1 August 1914

Declared war with France on 3 August 1914

Declared war with Belgium on 4 August 1914

Declared war with Portugal on 9 March 1916

Greece

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 27 June 1917

Declared war with Bulgaria on 27 June 1917

Declared war with Germany on 27 June 1917

Declared war with Turkey on 27 June 1917

Guatemala

Declared war with Germany on 23 April 1918

Haiti

Declared war with Germany on 12 July 1918

Honduras

Declared war with Germany on 19 July 1918

Italy

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915

Declared war with Turkey on 21 August 1915

Declared war with Germany on 28 August 1915

Declared war with Bulgaria on 19 October 1915

Japan

Declared war with Germany on 23 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 25 August 1914

Liberia

Declared war with Germany on 4 August 1914

Montenegro

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 5 August 1914

Declared war with Germany on 8 August 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 15 October 1915

New Zealand

Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

Nicaragua

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 8 May 1918

Declared war with Germany on 8 May 1918

Panama

Declared war with Germany on 7 April 1917

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 10 December 1917

Peru

Severed relations with Germany on 6 October 1917

Portugal

Entered war against Germany on 9 March 1916

Entered war against Austria-Hungary on 15 March 1916

Romania

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 27 August 1916

Exited war with Treaty of Bucharest on 7 May 1918

Re-entered the war on 10 November 1918

Russia

Declared war with Turkey on 2 November 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 19 October 1915

San Marino

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 3 June 1915

Serbia

Declared war with Germany on 6 August 1914

Declared war with Turkey on 2 November 1914

Siam

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 22 July 1917

Declared war with Germany on 22 July 1917

Turkey

Declared war with Romania on 30 August 1916

Severed relations with United States on 23 April 1917

United Kingdom

Declared war with Germany on 4 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 12 August 1914

Declared war with Turkey on 5 November 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 15 October 1915

United States of America

Declared war with Germany on 6 April 1917

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 7 December 1917

Uruguay

Severed relations with Germany on 7 October 1917





Reference:

Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, Volume 27, Funk and Wagnall, 1983


http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/declarationsofwar.htm


 *****

If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me
at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com


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