Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Flashback to Serbia's Concession of March 31st

The declaration Serbia was forced to send to Vienna (March 31, 1909):

"Serbia recognizes that the situation created in Bosnia-Herzegovina does not involve any injury to the rights of Serbia. In consequence, Serbia will conform to the decision which the powers are going to take in regard to article 25 of the treaty of Vienna. Serbia, conforming to the advice of the powers agrees to renounce the attitude of protest and opposition which she has taken since the month of October of last year. She agrees to modify the line of her political conduct in regard to Austria-Hungary and to live in the future on good terms with it. In conformity with this declaration and confident of the pacific intentions of Austria-Hungary, Serbia will bring back her army, in the matter of organization, distribution, and of state of activity, to the situation existing in the spring of 1908. She will disband the volunteer bodies and will prevent the formation of irregular bands upon her territory."

March 31, 1909


23 July, 1914

The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia

English Translation

The Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Berchtold, to the Minister at Belgrade, von Giesl:

Vienna, July 22, 1914

Your Excellency will present the following note to the Royal Government on the afternoon of Thursday, July 23: On the 31st of March, 1909, the Royal Serbian Minister at the Court of Vienna made, in the name of his Government, the following declaration to the Imperial and Royal Government:

Serbia recognizes that her rights were not affected by the state of affairs created in Bosnia, and states that she will accordingly accommodate herself to the decisions to be reached by the Powers in connection with Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Serbia, in accepting the advice of the Great Powers, binds herself to desist from the attitude of protest and opposition which she has assumed with regard to the annexation since October last, and she furthermore binds herself to alter the tendency of her present policy toward Austria-Hungary, and to live on the footing of friendly and neighborly relations with the latter in the future.

Now the history of the past few years, and particularly the painful events of the 28th of June, have proved the existence of a subversive movement in Serbia, whose object it is to separate certain portions of its territory from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. This movement, which came into being under the very eyes of the Serbian Government, subsequently found expression outside of the territory of the Kingdom in acts of terrorism, in a number of attempts at assassination, and in murders.

Far from fulfilling the formal obligations contained in its declaration of the 31st of March, 1909, the Royal Serbian Government has done nothing to suppress this movement. It has tolerated the criminal activities of the various unions and associations directed against the Monarchy, the unchecked utterances of the press, the glorification of the authors of assassinations, the participation of officers and officials in subversive intrigues; it has tolerated an unhealthy propaganda in its public instruction; and it has tolerated, finally, every manifestation which could betray the people of Serbia into hatred of the Monarchy and contempt for its institutions.

This toleration of which the Royal Serbian Government was guilty, was still in evidence at that moment when the events of the twenty-eighth of June exhibited to the whole world the dreadful consequences of such tolerance.

It is clear from the statements and confessions of the criminal authors of the assassination of the twenty-eighth of June, that the murder at Sarajevo was conceived at Belgrade, that the murderers received the weapons and the bombs with which they were equipped from Serbian officers and officials who belonged to the Narodna Odbrana, and, finally, that the dispatch of the criminals and of their weapons to Bosnia was arranged and effected under the conduct of Serbian frontier authorities.

The results brought out by the inquiry no longer permit the Imperial and Royal Government to maintain the attitude of patient tolerance which it has observed for years toward those agitations which center at Belgrade and are spread thence into the territories of the Monarchy. Instead, these results impose upon the Imperial and Royal Government the obligation to put an end to those intrigues, which constitute a standing menace to the peace of the Monarchy.

In order to attain this end, the Imperial and Royal Government finds itself compelled to demand that the Serbian Government give official assurance that it will condemn the propaganda directed against Austria-Hungary, that is to say, the whole body of the efforts whose ultimate object it is to separate from the Monarchy territories that belong to it; and that it will obligate itself to suppress with all the means at its command this criminal and terroristic propaganda. In order to give these assurances a character of solemnity, the Royal Serbian Government will publish on the first page of its official organ of July 26/13, the following declaration:

"The Royal Serbian Government condemns the propaganda directed against Austria-Hungary, that is to say, the whole body of the efforts whose ultimate object it is to separate from the Austro- Hungarian Monarchy territories that belong to it, and it most sincerely regrets the dreadful consequences of these criminal transactions.

"The Royal Serbian Government regrets that Serbian officers and officials should have taken part in the above-mentioned propaganda and thus have endangered the friendly and neighborly relations, to the cultivation of which the Royal Government had most solemnly pledged itself by its declarations of March 31, 1909.

"The Royal Government, which disapproves and repels every idea and every attempt to interfere in the destinies of the population of whatever portion of Austria-Hungary, regards it as its duty most expressly to call attention of the officers, officials, and the whole population of the kingdom to the fact that for the future it will proceed with the utmost rigor against any persons who shall become guilty of any such activities, activities to prevent and to suppress which, the Government will bend every effort."

This declaration shall be brought to the attention of the Royal army simultaneously by an order of the day from His Majesty the King, and by publication in the official organ of the army.

The Royal Serbian Government will furthermore pledge itself:

1. to suppress every publication which shall incite to hatred and contempt of the Monarchy, and the general tendency of which shall be directed against the territorial integrity of the latter;

2. to proceed at once to the dissolution of the Narodna Odbrana to confiscate all of its means of propaganda, and in the same manner to proceed against the other unions and associations in Serbia which occupy themselves with propaganda against Austria-Hungary; the Royal Government will take such measures as are necessary to make sure that the dissolved associations may not continue their activities under other names or in other forms;

3. to eliminate without delay from public instruction in Serbia, everything, whether connected with the teaching corps or with the methods of teaching, that serves or may serve to nourish the propaganda against Austria-Hungary;

4. to remove from the military and administrative service in general all officers and officials who have been guilty of carrying on the propaganda against Austria-Hungary, whose names the Imperial and Royal Government reserves the right to make known to the Royal Government when communicating the material evidence now in its possession;

5. to agree to the cooperation in Serbia of the organs of the Imperial and Royal Government in the suppression of the subversive movement directed against the integrity of the Monarchy;

6. to institute a judicial inquiry against every participant in the conspiracy of the twenty-eighth of June who may be found in Serbian territory; the organs of the Imperial and Royal Government delegated for this purpose will take part in the proceedings held for this purpose;

7. to undertake with all haste the arrest of Major Voislav Tankosic and of one Milan Ciganovitch, a Serbian official, who have been compromised by the results of the inquiry;

8. by efficient measures to prevent the participation of Serbian authorities in the smuggling of weapons and explosives across the frontier; to dismiss from the service and to punish severely those members of the Frontier Service at Schabats and Losnitza who assisted the authors of the crime of Sarajevo to cross the frontier;

9. to make explanations to the Imperial and Royal Government concerning the unjustifiable utterances of high Serbian functionaries in Serbia and abroad, who, without regard for their official position, have not hesitated to express themselves in a manner hostile toward Austria-Hungary since the assassination of the twenty-eighth of June;

10. to inform the Imperial and Royal Government without delay of the execution of the measures comprised in the foregoing points.

The Imperial and Royal Government awaits the reply of the Royal Government by Saturday, the twenty-fifth instant, at 6 p.m., at the latest.

A reminder of the results of the investigation about Sarajevo, to the extent they relate to the functionaries named in points 7 and 8 [above], is appended to this note.


The crime investigation undertaken at court in Sarajevo against Gavrilo Princip and his comrades on account of the assassination committed on the 28th of June this year, along with the guilt of accomplices, has up until now led to the following conclusions:

1. The plan of murdering Archduke Franz Ferdinand during his stay in Sarajevo was concocted in Belgrade by Gavrilo Princip, Nedeljko Cabrinovic, a certain Milan Ciganovic, and Trifko Grabesch with the assistance of Major Voija Takosic.

2. The six bombs and four Browning pistols along with ammunition -- used as tools by the criminals -- were procured and given to Princip, Cabrinovic and Grabesch in Belgrade by a certain Milan Ciganovic and Major Voija Takosic.

3. The bombs are hand grenades originating from the weapons depot of the Serbian army in Kragujevatz.

4. To guarantee the success of the assassination, Ciganovic instructed Princip, Cabrinovic and Grabesch in the use of the grenades and gave lessons on shooting Browning pistols to Princip and Grabesch in a forest next to the shooting range at Topschider.

5. To make possible Princip, Cabrinovic und Grabesch's passage across the Bosnia-Herzegovina border and the smuggling of their weapons, an entire secretive transportation system was organized by Ciganovic. The entry of the criminals and their weapons into Bosnia and Herzegovina was carried out by the main border officials of Shabatz (Rade Popovic) and Losnitza as well as by the customs agent Budivoj Grbic of Losnitza, with the complicity of several others.«

On the occasion of handing over this note, would Your Excellency please also add orally that -- in the event that no unconditionally positive answer of the Royal government might be received in the meantime -- after the course of the 48-hour deadline referred to in this note, as measured from the day and hour of your announcing it, you are commissioned to leave the I. and R. Embassy of Belgrade together with your personnel.


Aleksandra's Note: The English translation of the Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia of July 23, 1914 is found on


If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at


Monday, March 29, 2010

Serbia, undaunted, is immortal!

Photo of Zlatibor by Katarina Stefanovic

SERBIA, valiant daughter of the Ages,

Happiness and light should be thy portion!

Yet thy day is dimmed, thine heart is heavy;

Long hast thou endured — a little longer

Bear thy burden, for a fair tomorrow

Soon will gleam upon thy flower-spread valleys,

Soon will brighten all thy shadowy mountains;

Soon will sparkle on thy foaming torrents

Rushing toward the world beyond thy rivers.

Bulgar, Turk and Magyar long assailed thee.

Now the Teuton's cruel band is on thee.

Though he break thy heart and rack thy body,

'Tis not his to crush thy lofty spirit.

Serbia cannot die. She lives immortal,

Serbia — all thy loyal men bring comfort

Fighting, fighting, and thy far-flung banner

Blazons to the world thy high endeavor,

 — This thy strife for brotherhood and freedom —

Like an air-free bird unknowing bondage,

Soaring far from carnage, smoke and tumult, Serbia

— thy soul shall live forever!

Serbia, undaunted, is immortal!

Helen Leah Reed

To complement the poetic tribute above, I wanted to share the slide show below which is composed of gorgeous photos of Serbia taken between May of 2004 and January of 2010 by Katarina Stefanovic which can be found on "Flickr".  To enlarge the photo slide show and view 'full screen', just click on the square comprised of four arrows in the bottom right hand corner of the image below. Enjoy!

Aleksandra Rebic


If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at


Friday, March 26, 2010

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

A Victory for the Allies hard won by the Serbs in WWI // The Battle of Kajmakchalan September 1916

The Serbian Orthodox Chapel of Saint Ilia on Kajmakcalan Mountain.
The Chapel was built in 1925 and stands at the borderline
between Greece and Macedonia.

The Battle of Kajmakcalan, fought on the Macedonian Front in September of 1916, resulted in a victory for the Allies against the Central Powers in WWI. The Serbs, led by General Zivojin Misich, commander of the Serbian First Army, were victorious against the Bulgarians, finally taking their key position, but at a huge cost to the Serbs, who suffered devastating casualties here on the peak of "Prophet Ilia". This battle is historic due to the overwhelming casualties suffered by the Serbian Army and the location of the battle. Few battles have been fought at such heights. Kajmakcalan, with its twin peaks, is, at its highest point, 8200 feet. And once a certain height was reached, the battle was hand to hand.

Kajmakcalan was finally taken on September 30th, 1916 by the Serbian Army.

Skulls of fallen Serbs who perished in this battle remain on display inside the church.

Aleksandra Rebic

The Kajmakcalan Cross

Bulgarian Troops assault Kajmakcalan September 1916

The Bulgars attack the Serbs on Kajmakcalan 1916

Serbian soldiers on Kajmakcalan Sept. 1916

Serbian Officers on Kajmakcalan September 1916

Serbian soldier WWI Poster

Serbian remains on Kajmakcalan September 1916

Tributes inside the Saint Ilia Serbian Orthodox Chapel
on Kajmakcalan

Serbian Skulls inside the Kajmakcalan Serbian Orthodox Chapel

A Serbian Orthodox cemetery at the foot of Kajmakcalan



If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at


Sunday, March 14, 2010

WWI Serbia / The Serbian Golgotha 1915/1916 / Srpska Golgota / "Where the Yellow Lemon Blooms" / "Gde Cveta Limun Zut"

A remarkable historical documentary, with a combination of historical and modern footage and actors, produced by Kosutnjak Film, tells the story of the amazing Serbian Golgotha of 1915/1916 during World War One. The film has been posted on YouTube in 11 parts. All 11 parts can be viewed below. The narration is in the Serbian language with English subtitles.


Kosutnjak Film presents...

Gde Cveta Limun Zut // Where the Yellow Lemon Blooms


Produced by:

Zoran Jankovic
Slobodan Terzic

Screenplay by

Milovan Vitezovic
Zdravko Shotra

Narrated by Dragan Nikolic

Part 1 of 11

Part 2 of 11

Part 3 of 11

Part 4 of 11

Part 5 of 11

Part 6 of 11

Part 7 of 11

Part 8 of 11

Part 9 of 11

Part 10 of 11

Part 11 of 11

The Conclusion of

"Where the Yellow Lemon Blooms"


If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra, please feel free to contact me at