Monday, July 28, 2014

AUSTRIA DECLARES WAR AGAINST SERBIA JULY 28, 1914 AND WITHIN ONE WEEK ALL OF EUROPE'S GREAT POWERS ARE AT WAR as WWI consumes the World. / By Aleksandra Rebic

 
The Washington Times July 28, 1914
 
Aleksandra's Note:  It was in the splendid warm days 100 years ago, in the lovely, peaceful summer of 1914, that things just got really out of hand. The more one learns of how the First World War, the war that was to "end all wars", really began, the more amazed and horrified one becomes at how a "local conflict" that was supposed to take no more than a few months to resolve and finish could manifest into an international monster that quite literally changed the world forever in just four short years.
 
That is precisely why everyone needs to pay attention to, and be concerned about, those "local" matters, "way over there."
 
Just in considering a few bits of information about the Great War, one can confidently draw a few conclusions in hindsight:
 
1. Never underestimate how big something can become.
 
2. Never become overconfident, even if you are an Empire of many millions of people, because those "little peoples in their little states" could end up victorious over your Empire, and your Empire could become "no more".
 
3. The manufactured scapegoat of  "Greater Serbian Nationalism" was not the true cause of World War I.
 
4. Do not underestimate the Serbians.
 
Even after all these years, a full century later, there are STILL people who believe that a 19 year-old Bosnian Serb "nationalist" named Gavrilo Princip was responsible for causing World War I. That's perhaps the most amazing thing of it all. The direct cause of World War One was Austria's declaration of war against Serbia on July 28, 1914, exactly one month after the assassination in Sarajevo.
 
When I look at the front page of  the Tuesday, July 28, 1914 edition of The Washington Times, it's what is written under the main headline that strikes me. At that time, Serbians were often referred to as "Servians." Above the photographs of the Serbian soldiers on the front page is the heading: "Typical Servian soldiers with their antiquated equipment." This strikes me as a bit condescending, almost dismissive. These "typical Serbian soldiers with their antiquated equipment" would end up being an essential part of the Allied victory over the Central Powers in World War One, and the massive Austro-Hungarian Empire would be rendered obsolete. This underscores my recommendation never to underestimate the Serbians.
 
Given all of the above, it would behoove the great powers of today, in the 21st century, to consider very carefully their actions with regards to all the "local conflicts" grabbing the headlines. They need to consider just how big something can become so very quickly.
 
 
Sincerely,
Aleksandra Rebic
July 28, 2014
 
*****
 
The Declaration of War Telegram sent to Serbia by Austria-Hungary
on July 28, 2014

"At 11:10 A.M. on July 28, 1914, Count Leopold von Berchtold, the Austro-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs, sent the following telegram from Vienna to M. N. Pashitch, Serbian Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs. This declaration of war was received at Nish at 12:30 P.M."

[Telegraphic]

Vienna, July 28, 1914


"The Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms. Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in a state of war with Serbia."
 
COUNT BERCHTOLD  
Austr0-Hungarian Minister for Foreign Affairs

From: Collected Documents Relating to the Outbreak of the European War (London, 1915), p. 392. This is Document No. 45 quoted from the Serbian Blue Book.

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According to historian John Clinton Adams:
 
"The telegram came indirectly. It went from Vienna to Bucharest and from there down to Nish, which in the last three days had become the new capital of Serbia. Copied in pencil, the impersonal French words looked unimpressive..."

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From the Manchester Guardian July 29, 1914

"Austria has declared war upon Serbia. An unconfirmed report says Austro-Hungarian troops have invaded Serbia by crossing the River Save at Mitrovitz. Two Serbian steamers have been seized on the Danube.

"In Vienna it is believed that Montenegro, which stands with her Serb sister state, is mobilising, and that a joint force is gathering near the Bosnian frontier in readiness to deliver a counter-stroke towards Sarajevo.

"Our St. Petersburg correspondent, telegraphing last night, says if Austria occupies Belgrade, Russia will reply at once by mobilising all her army. Her partial mobilisation is in full swing.

"In Berlin, it is believed that if Russia calls her troops to the colours, Germany will at once follow her example. The fleet has returned to home waters."

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The following is from:

 www.firstworldwar.com

"The 'Great War', which began on 28 July 1914 with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war with Serbia, was the first truly global war. It began in Europe but quickly spread throughout the world. Many countries became embroiled within the war's first month; others joined in the ensuing four years, with Honduras announcing hostilities with Germany as late as 19 July 1918 (with the record going to Romania, who entered the war - albeit for the second time - one day before it finished, on 10 November 1918).

"Detailed below is a list of the nations [in alphabetical order] who formally declared hostilities during World War One, along with their date of entrance. Nations of the British Empire, e.g. Australia, Canada and New Zealand, automatically entered the war with Britain's decision to enter the fray on 4 August 1914.

"Note that on numerous occasions hostilities were assumed without a formal declaration, e.g. Russia with Germany and Austria-Hungary in August 1914."


Australia

Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

Austria-Hungary


Declared war with Serbia on 28 July 1914

Declared war with Russia on 6 August 1914

Declared war with Belgium on 28 August 1914

Declared war with Portugal on 15 March 1916

Belgium

Invaded by Germany on 3 August 1914

Bolivia

Severed relations with Germany on 13 April 1917

Brazil

Severed relations with Germany on 11 April 1917

Declared war with Germany on 26 October 1917

Bulgaria


Declared war with Serbia on 14 October 1915

Declared war with Romania on 1 September 1916

Canada


Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

China


Severed relations with Germany on 14 March 1917

Declared war with Germany on 14 August 1917

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 14 August 1917

Costa Rica


Severed relations with Germany on 21 September 1917

Declared war with Germany on 23 May 1918

Cuba


Declared war with Germany on 7 April 1917

Ecuador

Severed relations with Germany on 8 December 1917

France


Invaded by Germany on 2 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 12 August 1914

Declared war with Turkey on 5 November 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 16 October 1915

Germany


Declared war with Russia on 1 August 1914

Declared war with France on 3 August 1914

Declared war with Belgium on 4 August 1914

Declared war with Portugal on 9 March 1916

Greece


Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 27 June 1917

Declared war with Bulgaria on 27 June 1917

Declared war with Germany on 27 June 1917

Declared war with Turkey on 27 June 1917

Guatemala


Declared war with Germany on 23 April 1918

Haiti


Declared war with Germany on 12 July 1918

Honduras


Declared war with Germany on 19 July 1918

Italy

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915

Declared war with Turkey on 21 August 1915

Declared war with Germany on 28 August 1915

Declared war with Bulgaria on 19 October 1915

Japan


Declared war with Germany on 23 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 25 August 1914

Liberia


Declared war with Germany on 4 August 1914

Montenegro


Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 5 August 1914

Declared war with Germany on 8 August 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 15 October 1915

New Zealand


Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

Nicaragua


Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 8 May 1918

Declared war with Germany on 8 May 1918

Panama


Declared war with Germany on 7 April 1917

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 10 December 1917

Peru


Severed relations with Germany on 6 October 1917

Portugal


Entered war against Germany on 9 March 1916

Entered war against Austria-Hungary on 15 March 1916

Romania


Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 27 August 1916

Exited war with Treaty of Bucharest on 7 May 1918

Re-entered the war on 10 November 1918

Russia


Declared war with Turkey on 2 November 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 19 October 1915

San Marino


Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 3 June 1915

Serbia


Declared war with Germany on 6 August 1914

Declared war with Turkey on 2 November 1914

Siam


Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 22 July 1917

Declared war with Germany on 22 July 1917

Turkey


Declared war with Romania on 30 August 1916

Severed relations with United States on 23 April 1917

United Kingdom


Declared war with Germany on 4 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 12 August 1914

Declared war with Turkey on 5 November 1914

Declared war with Bulgaria on 15 October 1915

United States of America


Declared war with Germany on 6 April 1917

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 7 December 1917

Uruguay

Severed relations with Germany on 7 October 1917



Reference:

Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, Volume 27, Funk and Wagnall, 1983


http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/declarationsofwar.htm


*****

If you would like to get in touch with me, Aleksandra,
please feel free to contact me at heroesofserbia@yahoo.com

*****

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